The rose is a shrub that is part of the Rosaceae family. These plants are cultivated for their esthetic aspect, their flowers are considered the world’s most beautiful flowers. Besides the esthetic role, the rose flowers (petals) are used in the cosmetic, syrup, jams, oils manufacturing industries. For these purposes, no sub-species can be cultivated. The most important petal intended rose sub-species are: Rosa rugosa, Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia.
Growth and fruition particularities
The petal intended roses grow as a shrub, 1-2 m tall. This is a thick shrub, formed of numerous multiannual branches that flower abundantly. The stems have wooden and erect thorns. The leaves are formed of 5-7 leaflets. These have an oval shape, with serrated margins and hairs along the veins. The petiole of the leaves is tomentose. The flowers are grouped in 2-3 flower groups per inflorescence, and are red or pink, and the corolla is flattened. The fruit is a fake fruit, of a red color, with an elliptical shape, also called rosehip.
Climate and soil requirements
The petal intended roses prefer chilly areas, where the average annual temperatures will not exceed 8 degrees Celsius. On the other hand, these species are not resilient to the excessively cold winter temperatures. At -25 degrees Celsius the shrubs will die. When it comes to light, these species have moderate requirements. This is why these can be successfully planted on northern exposure parcels. This species has medium humidity requirements, it can withstand even the excess soil humidity for short periods of time, but are sensitive to drought. It can well exploit poorly productive soils, where other crop species cannot be planted, but it will have an optimum vegetation period on soils with a middle texture and that are rich in humus.
Choosing and preparing the soil
The petal intended rose can be placed on medium fertile soils, with a clay texture, clay-sandy texture, and high permeability. It can be planted on flat or inclined parcels, making sure the indentation of the parcel will not exceed 15%. The parcel must be cleaned of the previous crop and of its vegetal residues (even the underground ones). After performing this operation, the soil must be levelled and fertilized using 20-40 tons of organic compost. The fertilizers must be incorporated into the soil by performing a deep plough at a 30-35-cm depth and by using the disk cultivator afterwards.
The optimum planting period is during autumn, when the shrubs have already entered their vegetative rest period. The following planting scheme is recommended: 3-m distance between the rows and 1-m distance between the plants on each row. Once the needed planting scheme has been established, the parcel must be marked. This operation consists of marking the future spots of the shrubs by sticking stakes into the soil where it should be. The following procedures must be: digging the holes and the actual planting process. The holes can be manually, or mechanically dug (using the drilling tractor). The holes must be: 30 – 40 x 30 – 40 x 40 cm.
Before planting, the roots must be cleaned up. This operation consists of removing the wounded parts of the roots and smoothing the existing small wounds on the roots. This operation will also rejuvenate the plant’s root system. The dead roots must be completely removed and the living ones must be 4-5 cm shortened. After cleaning the roots, these need to be mulched. Mulching represents placing the roots inside a mixture of yellow soil, cattle organic compost and water. The mulching layer will help the plants better adapt to the new environment conditions. It is recommended that the mulching layer has a sour-cream like consistency. The planting material consists of the seedlings that already have grown roots. These need to be inserted into the already dug holes so that the roots and around 5-7-cm of the stem are covered by soil. This will stimulate the sucker growth, that will help form the shrub. After planting, each seedling must be watered using 8-10 l of water and must be cut to 4-5 sprouts.
The lack of water can determine a decrease in the quality and quality of the petal production. The petal intended rose plants consume most of the nutrients during the abundant blossoming phase. By looking at the calendar, this period should be between May and June. It is recommended to have an irrigation system installed so that the needed humidity will be assured for the plant development (60-100% of the field water capacity) at a 10-40-cm depth. The best results can be achieved by using micro-sprinklers and drip irrigation systems.
During the first years after planting, the roses have a slow growing rhythm. In order to stimulate their growth and the growth of suckers, the distance between the rose rows must be kept clean by repeatedly ploughing. After 3-4 years, leave this space to natural grow flora. Once the grass has grown, it needs to be periodically mowed when it reaches a 10-15-cm length. the resulted hay needs to be put right back on the soil to act as a mulching layer.
Roses react well to fertilizers. Starting with the second vegetation year, the rose crop can be fertilized. We recommend applying around 100 kg of nitrogen, active substance per hectare. This quantity can also be applied in 3 phases, an equal quantity to be applied per phase. The first phase can be the beginning of the plant’s vegetation cycle. The second phase can be after 30 days from the first phase and the third one can be 20 days after the second phase.
To assure an optimum rose plant growth, the shrub needs to be periodically cut. These maintenance cuts are intended for growing a vigorous shrub, that has an optimum stem number and enough suckers to assure the crown rejuvenation. We recommend controlling the plant to grow as a shrub as this is easy to be carried out and it enhances the biological particularities for each species. No maintenance cuts need to be applied during the first 2-3 vegetation years. During this period, you can only remove the branches that have dried out or that have been affected by frosts. These maintenance cuts need to be applied during spring, when the risk of late frosts has already passed. Starting with the third vegetation year, the maintenance cuts need to be performed on a yearly basis. This way, all dried branches or frost affected branches can be eliminated. Take out the thin and poorly branched stems located at the base of the plant. You must also remove the stems that are overlapping with the ones which grow inside of the plant. Old and black branches, that are older than 3-5 years must also be eliminated from the base of the shrub. After each cut, the shrub must be aired, and it must look healthy and have 7-8 branches and each branch must have 6-10 sprouts.
The rose petals harvesting is a delicate procedure. This can only be executed manually by collecting the flowers along with their receptacles. The flowers must be harvested during the floral bud phase or during the opening phase. This step needs to be carried out on dry and chilly weather as the petal properties must not be affected. The petals need to be stored in wooden or cardboard crates and stored in cool and shady places, or inside specially equipped warehouses (atmosphere controlled warehouses).