Pepper treatments, most common diseases and pests of this vegetable

pepper capsicum annuum treatments, most common diseases and pests of this vegetable

The pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a plant that occupies an important place among pepper capsicum annuum treatments, most common diseases and pests of this vegetablethe worldwide vegetable crops. The pepper is original from America, Mexico, Guatemala. From here, it extended to the north, towards USA, and towards the south, to Colombia, Venezuela, Equator, Brazil, etc. In Europe, peppers arrived in the 15th century, and in Romania they were grown only starting with the 19th century. Despite being a single species, C. annuum has many forms, with a variety of names, even in the same language. Any variety lacking heat is colloquially known as a sweet pepper, or bell pepper, while the spicy varieties are colloquially known as a hot pepper or chili pepper.
The pepper is an exigent plant when it comes to its vegetation factors. It develops well if a proper culture technology is in place. In pepper culture technology, applying phytosanitary treatments is a technological link. It is very important to know the diseases and pests that attack this plant, and to apply the necessary plant protection products correctly and efficiently.

The main diseases

Viruses:

pepper capsicum annuum dwarfing

Dwarfing and narrowing of leaves in the pepper bush produced by the pathogen called Cucumber mosaic virus in pepper. The young plants that get attacked have a much smaller size, reaching only 50% of the height of a healthy plant. The internodes and branches of the plant are short, which results in a clumped appearance. The leaves are small, with a mosaic-shaped deformed limb (having healthy green tissue alternating with dark green or yellow tissue). On the attacked strains, sometimes grey or brown spots may be observed. The attacked fruits are small and deformed as well. The virus has a large circle of hosts, annual and perennial species, which are reservoirs of infection. Examples of hosts are: Shepherd’s Purse, Common Chickenweed, White dead-nettle, etc. The disease is transmitted by several species of aphids (plant lice) as well.

Prevention and control measures:

  • seedlings will be produced in areas where no other solanacées (tomatoes, eggplants, etc.) are grown;
  • destroying the host plants (weeds) in the crop and around the plot;
  • the pepper culture will be isolated from other crops of solanacées (tomatoes, eggplants, potatoes, etc.);
  • periodic insecticide treatments will be carried out to control insect pests;
  • eliminating attacked plants from the crop;
  • cultivation of resistant varieties;

The mosaic of pepper produced by the virus Tobacco mosaic virus in pepper can be foundpepper capsicum annuum tobacco mosaic virus on all continents. Symptoms vary depending on the cultivated variety of pepper. Generally yellow spots appear on the leaves and the leaves get a mosaic aspect. Fruits are deformed, small, with circular or irregular chlorotic spots of green, yellow or brown. The transmission of this disease is through direct contact between healthy and unhealthy plants, through tools or agricultural machines, through infected seed and soil.

Prevention and control measures:

  • seed treatment before sowing and disinfecting the substrate from the hotbed. For information on seed treatment and soil disinfection click here;
  • cultivation of resistant varieties;
  • the pepper culture must not follow tomatoes, eggplant, pepper or potato, as the soil can be infected;

Blemish stain disease, produced by Tomato spotted wilt virus in pepper. This pepper capsicum annuum tomato spotted wilt virusdisease is manifested by the appearance of mosaic spots on the growth tips of the plants. Later on, the disease develops, and circular spots of brown, yellow or dark green appear on the plant. They evolve and cause necrosis of the attacked tissue. The attacked plants are smaller than the healthy ones and produce a smaller amount of fruit. The virus has a large circle of hosts, annual and perennial species, which creates reservoirs of infection throughout the year. The transmission of the disease is mainly caused by trips.

Prevention and control measures:

  • eliminating attacked plants from the culture;
  • destroying the host plants (weeds) in the crop and around the plot;
  • the pepper culture will be isolated from other crops of solanacées (tomatoes, eggplants, potatoes, etc.);
  • periodic insecticide treatments will be carried out to control insect pests;
  • cultivation of resistant varieties;

Mycoplasmosis:

Stubble of pepper (Stolbur disease in pepper). The disease is common to all plants in the pepper capsicum annuum Stolbur diseaseSolanaceae family (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, eggplants) and it is produced by a mycoplasma. This disease occurs throughout Europe, but the worst damage is reported in the eastern part of the continent. The leaves appear to be discoloured, the plant stagnates in growth, the flowers remain sterile or form small and deformed fruits. In severe cases, the disease causes a verticillium-like disorder, but in this case the conductive vessels are not turning brown. The source of infection is represented by the host plants (field bindweed, dodder, orache) or diseased plants (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, potatoes) and is transmitted to healthy plants by several cicada species (insects).

Prevention and control measures:

  • destruction of host and segmented plants;
  • combating the insects that carry mycoplasmosis;
  • eliminating attacked plants from culture;
  • cultivation of resistant varieties;

Bacteriosis:

Bacterial pathogenic spotting produced by Xanthomonas campestris bacteria, which often pepper capsicum annuum bacterial pathogenic spotting attacks tomato crops as well. In a slight attack, the bacteria can cause the appearance of necrotic spots on the leaves, and a severe attack may cause the appearance of these spots on all the aerial organs of the plant. In sensitive varieties, stains are numerous, as they merge and produce defoliation of the plant. On the strains, the disease produces elongated cracks, which are browning. The attacked fruits have circular, wet, brown and harsh spots. Symptoms are evident in wet weather, when bacterial exudate flows from the wounds. This (the exudate) is installed on the seeds, in the soil and on the vegetal remains, ensuring the transmission of the bacteriosis.

Prevention and control measures:

  • the use of healthy seeds from certified sources;
  • cultivation of resistant varieties;
  • pepper culture should not be grown on land where tomatoes, aubergines, peppers or potatoes were planted;
  • chemical treatments with fungicides based on copper should be applied: Zeama bordeleza, Champ 77 WG, Copernico Hi Bio, Melody Compact 49 WG, Funguran OH 50 WP; Warning! Two consecutive treatments with the same product should not be applied.

Mycosis

The grey rot caused by Botrytis cinerea. The attack usually occurs in greenhouses and pepper capsicum annuum grey rotsolariums, and in years with abundant rainfall, it can appear in the field. The most common symptom is sudden wasting of succulent tissues, such as young stalks and leaves. On the fruit, the attack occurs in the form of brown, damp spots, and in high humidity conditions, on the surface of the stains a greyish fuz appears.

Prevention and control measures:

  • chemical or thermal disinfection of the soil;
  • rational fertilization;
  • avoiding irrigation by sprinkling,
  • chemical treatments with Bravo 500 SC, Ortiva 250 SC, Rovral 500 SC, Teldor 500 SC, Switch 62.5 WG;

Powdery mildew of pepper, produced by Leveillula taurica. This disease is less prevalent in 

pepper capsicum annuum powdery mildew

Romania. The fungus attacks the greenhouse, solarium and field crops. Yellow spots appear on the leaves, which then get covered with a mycelium white felt. As the disease develops, the mildew covers the entire leaf and becomes dusty. The affected tissues are dying. In severe cases, it can lead to plant defoliation. The disease can spread on young fruits and leaf petiole. The fungus resists during winter in the soil. During vegetation, the disease is caused by spores of the fungus, which are carried by wind, water droplets or other vectors (animals, humans, tools).

Prevention and control measures:

  • it is recommended to cultivate varieties and hybrids with genetic resistance;
  • at the end of the culture, the remains should be collected and burned;
  • eliminating diseased plants from culture;
  • the deep autumn ploughing;
  • rotation of crops (pepper is not cultivated after tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, etc.);
  • chemical treatments with Thiovit Jet (4 kg / ha), Topas 100 EC (0.5 l / ha), Systhane Plus 24 E, Karathane M 35, Kumulus DF; Warning! Two consecutive treatments with the same product should not be applied.

Wilting of the pepper plant (Fusarium) produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. pepper capsicum annuum wiltingTheoccurrence of the disease is favoured by temperatures above 27-28ºC, high moisture in the soil and a slightly acidic pH. On the attacked plants, a leaf discoloration appears, followed by wilting. At first the plants suffer from temporary wilting, but in the end, the process is irreversible. On the fruit, moist spots of brown-grey appear. Fusarium is a vascular disease, the sections performed in the stems of the plant reveal an intense browning of the conducting vessels. The fungus lives in the soil, being widespread by water or agricultural tools and agricultural machinery. The fungus gets inside the plant through the root system, and in favourable conditions, it dries the plant in two weeks. The fungus also spreads through infected seeds.

Prevention and control measures:

  • chemical or thermal disinfection of soil in greenhouses, solariums, seedlings and seed treatment before sowing. For information on seed and soil disinfection click here;
  • avoiding relative humidity increase over 85% in greenhouses and solariums and avoiding soils where water stagnates;
  • use of varieties and hybrids resistant to fusarium;
  • seed treatment prior to sowing;
  • chemical treatments with Topsin 70 WDG and Topsin 500 SC. Prepare a solution of 0.05 – 0.1% (5 or 10 g per 10 litres of water) and spray each plant with 0.5 l (of the solution);

Blight, produced by Phythophtora infestans. Attack is common on leaves, fruits and seeds, pepper capsicum annuum blightrarely on stems and roots. On the upper side of the leaves, watery spots appear, which later become brownish. On the underside of the leaves, near the spots, a whitish puff appears. The affected tissues become brown and dry. The fruits appear brown, damp and soft. The seeds of the affected fruit contain the infectious mycelium of the fungus. When the disease attacks the strain, an annular, dark-green, then brown area appears at its base. After these symptoms occur, the wilt and drying of the plant takes place.

Prevention and control measures:

  • soil disinfection and seed treatment before sowing. For information on seed and soil disinfection click here;
  • rotation of crops (pepper is not cultivated after tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, etc.);
  • avoid sprinkler irrigation;
  • avoiding soils where water stagnates;
  • chemical treatments with Bravo 500 SC, Acrobat MZ 90-600 WP, Ridomil Gold MZ 68, Equation PRO, Dithane M 45;

The fruit rot or early blight, produced by Alternaria solani. It manifests through the pepper capsicum annuum fruit rotappearance of wet and soft yellowish-green spots on the fruit of the plant. Infected tissue degrades, becomes brown and dries. On the surface of the spots a dark-grey colour is formed, which is the fructification of the fungus.

Prevention and control measures:

  • gathering and destroying vegetal debris;
  • rotation of crops (pepper is not cultivated after tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, etc.);
  • use of resistant varieties;
  • chemical treatments with Ortiva 250 SC, Score 250 EC, Bravo 500 SC, Polyram DF;

Anthracnose produced by the Colletotrichum capsici fungus. The attack is manifested pepper capsicum annuum Anthracnosethrough the appearance of circular and deep spots on the surface of the fruit. The appearance of anthracnose is favoured by high temperatures (over 30 degrees) and humidity.

Prevention and control measures:

  • burning of plant debris after harvesting;
  • only certified seed will be used;
  • crop rotation;
  • treatments with Dithane M45, Ridomil Gold MZ 68 WG, Folpan 80 WDG, Champ 77 WG, Topsin 500 SC.

Falling and rotting of seedlings produced by Phythium debarianum. It is one of the most pepper capsicum annuum rotting of seedlingsimportant diseases of seedlings. It manifests from the stage of germination and rising to the stage of 2-3 true leaves. In the event of an attack, the tissues of the strains at the soil level become black, watery and decompose. The occurrence of the disease is favoured by temperatures between 18-30 ° C and humidity above 90%.

Prevention and control measures:

  • crop elimination from soil cultivation and disinfection in the respective region;
  • substrate disinfection and seed treatment before sowing. For information on seed and soil disinfection click here;
  • avoiding excessive watering;
  • vegetation treatments with Previcur Energy, Merpan 50 WP, Captan 80 WDG, Folpan 80 WDG;

During vegetation, on the organs of the plants, morphological changes can occur that can easily be confused with the symptoms of some of these diseases. These occur as a result of physiological changes taking place in the plant, which are caused by deficiencies in nutrients or by the action of environmental factors. The manifestations of this type are sunburn and calcium deficiency.

Calcium is a very important element in a plant’s life, but most often it is ignored by cultivators. pepper capsicum annuum calcium lackCalcium deficiency is a change that occurs very often in vegetable crops. The affection manifests on the top of the fruit and causes the browning of the tissues. A number of phytopatogenic fungi (Example: Alternariosis) can appear on the affected area. Sunburn is caused by the action of radiation from the sun. The most affected organs of the plants are the fruits. They get a grey colour, they get hardened and they do not mature (no longer become ripe).

The main pests

Greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). The pest grows in greenhouse conditionspepper capsicum annuum Greenhouse whitefly throughout the year and in the field only during the summer. In the greenhouse, it can develop 3-6 generations when conditions are favourable. Adults and larvae colonize the leaves, often also the sprouts. After the attack, the leaves get etiolated, dry and fall off.

Control measures:

  • destruction of vegetal remains after the dissolution of the crop;
  • the disinfection of greenhouses and solariums before the establishment of a new crop;
  • treatments with Decis Mega 50 EC (0.25 l / ha), Actara 25 WG (0.2 kg / ha), Confidor Energy (1.3 l / ha), Mospilan 20 SG (1.5 g / 6 l water), Movento 100 SC;
  • the use of attractant traps;

Red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). It can develop 6-10 generations per year and it pepper capsicum annuum Red spider mitewinters in the adult stage, especially as a female (males are generally less rare), under the scuffed bark of trees, under the fallen leaves, on dry weeds or in the superficial soil layer, etc. The attacked leaves dry up and fall, defoliations being recorded, which can sometimes contain 80-100% of the leaf count. As a result of the attack, there is a halt in the growth of the sprouts and a premature ripening of the fruits.

Control measures:

  • treatments with Vertimec (1 l / ha), Nissorun 10 WP (5 g / 12 l water), Envidor 240 SC, Millbeknock EC;

Aphids are polyphagous species that migrate from one plant to another or from one species topepper capsicum annuum Aphids another. They grow on any kind of plant or tree, and then migrate and attack crops. They appear as a colony on the underside of the leaves, on the flowers or inflorescences and on young sprouts. Insects prick the plant and suck the cell juice, causing a stress on the plant. In the event of a severe attack, aphids can cause the death to of the plant.

Control measures:

  • treatments with Decis Mega 50 EC (0.2 l / ha), Confidor Energy (0.6 l / ha), Mospilan 20 SG (1.5 g / 12 l water), Actara 25 WG;
  • the use of attractant traps;

The broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) is a polyphagous species, commonly found in pepper capsicum annuum broad mite protected areas (greenhouses and solariums). It attacks the lower part of the leaves, floral blooms and fruits. The attacked organs turn yellow and deform.

Control measures:

  • treatments with Nissorun 10 WP (5 g / 12 l water), Vertimec 1.8 EC (10 m / 10 l water), Envidor 240 SC;

Thrips are small insects, hardly visible to the naked eye, attacking a large number of crop pepper capsicum annuum thripsplants. They colonize the tops, flowers, and leaves of the plant, causing flower abortions and plant dwarfism. They also transmit a series of viruses.

Control measures:

  • treatments with Actara 25 WG, Mavrik 2 F, Karate Zeon 50 CS, Decis Mega 50 EW;
  • the use of attractant traps;

The root-knot nematodes (Meloidoyne spp) has several generations per year. Immediately pepper capsicum annuum root-knot nematodesafter hatching, the larvae flow through the soil in search of roots. They enter easily into the radicular system, where they secrete a toxin that causes hypertrophy of the tissues, blocking the conductive vessels of the affected areas.

Control measures:

  • Disinfection of soil with Force 1.5 G (15 kg / ha) or Basamid Granules;
  • use of certified seeds;
  • cultivation of resistant varieties;

Mole Cricket (Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa) has an omnivorous diet, feds with vegetal substrates,pepper capsicum annuum Mole Cricket live prey (earthworms and various larvae) or insect corpses. The damages produced are direct, by eating the root system of the plants (cutting off the strains of the plant when it is rising or it is replanted). They bring up to the surface of the soil the germinated seeds of plants, or even young, small plants. The attacked ones wither and bend over to the ground.

Control measures:

  • chemical treatments applied to the soil

The cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is a polyphagous pest that attacks over 120 pepper capsicum annuum cotton bollwormspecies of plants. Its larvae are the ones that are harmful. First, they prune the epidermis of the leaves, then enter the inside of the fruit, where the pulp and the seeds are consumed, rendering it unusable.

Control measures:

  • chemical treatments with Mavrik 2 F, Confidor Energy, Novadim Progress, Decis Mega 50 EW, Karate Zeon 50 CS;

Serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii). This pest occurs frequently in protected areas and pepper capsicum annuum Serpentine leafminerless in the field. The larvae dig in the form of serpentines on the leaf surface. This causes the drying of the leaves, and in severe cases, it can dry the entire plant.

Control measures:

  • chemical treatments with: Nuprid AL 200 SC, Vertimec 1.8 EC, Laser 240 SC, Actara 25 WG, Decis Mega 50 EW;

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