Celery treatments, most common diseases and pests of this vegetable

celery apium graveolens treatments common diseases pests vegetable

The celery (Apium graveolens) is a vegetable which is part of the Apiaceae family, being cultivated for its leaves and its root. It is easily recognisable. The leaves have a long petiole, are a light green and it has a characteristic smell and taste. The underground parts of the plant are represented by a thick, spherical rhizome from it is developing the radicular system of the plant. In terms of food, celery can provide us with a healthy meal, rich in vitamins and minerals, but low in calories. The root contains phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, vitamins (C,E,A,B1,B12) and volatile substances. Besides food properties, celery can be used as medication. It can treat insomnia, toothache, rheumatism and inflammatory diseases.

celery apium graveolens treatments common diseases pests vegetable

Main diseases

Viroses:

Celery mosaic virus (CeMV)

Plants which are attacked are easily recognisable through the deformed leaves and plant dwarfism. Also, The leaves present bleaching spots on the nerves. During the vegetation the virus is transmitted through the aphids. From year to year the virus is transmitted through infected seeds.

Measures to prevent and combat:

  • Usage of healthy and certified seed;
  • Removal and destruction from culture of the plants which shows the symptoms of the disease;
  • Weed destruction;
  • Usage of insecticides to keep under control the aphids.

Bacteriosis:

Erwinia carotovora

The disease appears in the cold summers with heavy rainfall. On the stem from the ground level appears some yellow-brown, wet spots. If the humidity stays high, the spots unify and cover the whole root. The bacteria penetrates into the plant through the wounds caused by the maintenance works or by the insects. The bacteria enters in the space between the cells and destroys the cell walls. So the root will transform into a mucilaginous, brown mass. It can appear in the deposit, where it can produce damage over 50%.

celery apium graveolens erwinia carotovora

Measures to prevent and combat:

  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Rational irrigation and fertilization;
  • Root sortation before depositing;
  • Cultivation of resistant varieties;
  • Treatments in the vegetation period with Champ 77 WG, Copernico Hi-Bio, Melody Compact 49 WG, Funguran OH 50 WP, Bouillie Bordelaise WDG.

 

Mycosis:

Black blight (Septoria apiicola)

It is a very dangerous, that can destroy all the leaves of the plant. The attack is favored by the temperatures between 18 and 20 Celsius degrees and a high atmospheric humidity (95%). On the leaves appears yellow-brown spots, surrounded by a red border. If the weather conditions permit, the disease evolves, the spots grow, and in their center appears the fructification of the fungus. This symptoms can appear on the stem, flowers or the seeds. The disease is transmitted through infected seeds or through spores of fungus that resist through the winter on the vegetable debris.

celery apium graveolens black blight

Measures to prevent and combat:

  • Usage of healthy seeds;
  • Collecting and destroying the plant residues after harvesting;
  • Treatments with Topas 100 EC, Kumulus DF, Ortiva 250 SC, Dithane M 45, Bouillie Bordelaise WDG.

 

 

Powdery mildew produced by the fungus Erysiphe umbelliferarum

On the leaves of attacked appears a white mycelium. The disease evolves, and the mycelium becomes grey and dusty. On the affected tissue forms some small, black dots, represented by the fungus fructification. The fungus appears in the warm and dry years.It is transmitted through vectors (people, water, wind, tools) that transport the spores from the attacked plants to the healthy ones. Through the winter, the fungus resists on the vegetable debris on the surface of the soil.

celery apium graveolens powdery mildew

Measures to prevent and combat:

  • Collecting and destroying the plant residues after harvesting;
  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Avoiding sprinkling watering;
  • Treatments with Topas 100 EC, Kumulus DF, Ortiva 25 SC, Thiovit Jet 80 WG, Systhane Plus 24 E.

 

White mold produced by Scerotinia sclerotiorum

The disease is widespread in all the root crops, but the biggest damage is produced in deposits. It appears when the weather is warm and humid. At the ground level on the stem appears a white fluff, that represents the mycelium of the fungus. If the weather conditions remain favorable, the fungus destroys all the plant. Characteristic to this disease is the appearance of some black sclerotia on the mycelium of the fungus. In the deposit the disease spreads through the direct contact between the attacked plants and healthy plants.

celery apium graveolens white mold

Measures to prevent and combat:

  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Collecting and destroying the plant residues after harvesting;
  • Root sorting before depositing;
  • Treatments with Topsin 500 SC, Ortiva 250 SC, Switch 625 WG, Rovral 500 SC, Orius 25 EW.

 

 

Leaf spot produced by the fungus Cercospora apii

On the leaves appears some small, fawn, round spots, surrounded by a fine, brown border. The affected areas sink in the tissue. The disease can be confused with Downy mildew, but if the plant has Leaf spot it doesn’t have fluff on the lower side of the leaves. The fungus spreads through spores. They resist on the vegetable debris on the surface of the soil and they will produce infections in the next years.  High temperatures and the presence of water drops on the leaves favors the appearance of the disease.

celery apium graveolens leaf spot

Measures to prevent and combat:

  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Cultivation of resistant varieties;
  • Avoiding sprinkling watering;
  • Collecting and destroying the plant residues after harvesting;
  • Treatments with Ortiva 250 SC, Bravo 500 SC, Topsin 500 SC, Score 250 EC.

 

 

Downy mildew produced by Peronospora umbelliferarum

On the top of the leaves appear yellow, wet spots that evolve and become brown. After a while, on the lower side of the leaves, appears a brown fluff, that represents the fructification of the fungus. This fungus is very dangerous because in short time can produce defoliation of the plant. The disease is transmitted through infected seeds and through spores that resists on the vegetal debrin on the surface of the soil.

celery apium graveolens downy mildew

Measures to prevent and combat:

  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Cultivation of resistant varieties;
  • Avoiding sprinkling watering;
  • Collecting and destroying the plant residues after harvesting;
  • Usage of healthy seeds;
  • Treatments with Aliette 80 WG, Verita, Ridomil Gold MZ 68 WG, Antracol 70 WP, Polyram DF.

 

Main pests

Italian striped bug (Graphosoma Lineatum) has one generation a year and winters as an adult in the vegetable debris on the surface of the soil. The larvae and the adults attack plants determining the destruction of sprouts, flower abortion and prevents plant growth.

celery apium graveolens Italian striped bug

Measures to prevent and combat:

  • Rational fertilization;
  • Weed destruction;
  • Treatments with Actara 25 WG, Faster 10 CE, Decis Mega EW 50, Pyrinex Quick, Kaiso Sorbie.

 

 

 

 

The aphids are a polyphagous species that migrates from plant to plant or from a species to another. They grow on the spontaneous flora, then they migrate on the cultivated species. It is presented as a colony on the lower part of the leaves, on flowers or inflorescences and young sprouts. The insects sting and suck the cell juice, provoking a stress to the plant. In case of a severe attack the plant dies.

celery apium graveolens aphids

Control measures:

  • Treatments with Decis Mega 50 EC(0.2l/ha), Confidor Energy(0.6l/ha), Mospilan 20 SG(1.5 grams/12l of water), Actara 25 WG;
  • Utilisation of the attracting traps.

 

 

 

 

Carrot fly (Chamaepsila rosae)

This species can attack celery too. Has 2 generations a year and winters as a pupa on the vegetable debris on the surface of the soil. Females lay eggs in the soil close to the plant. After hatching, the larvae penetrates in the root, where digs galleries. The attacked plants die or develop small rhizomes, that cannot be eaten. In the roots produced by the larvae can install microorganisms that cause tissue rot.

celery apium graveolens carrot fly

Control measures:

  • Collecting and destroying the plant residues after harvesting;
  • Elimination of attacked plants from the culture;
  • Treatments with Decis Expert 100 EC, Confidor Energy, Calypso 480 SC, Karate Zeon 50 CS.

 

 

Phytoecia icterica

This species can attack the celery too. This pest has a generation a year and winters in the carrot, parsnip and celery roots. The females lay eggs in the soil close to the roots. After hatching the larvae penetrate the roots where dig galleries. After the attack the roots rot. In case of severe attack the culture can be affected by 40%.

celery apium graveolens Phytoecia icterica

Control measures:

  • Collecting and destroying the plant residues after harvesting;
  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Treatments once the adults appear with Decis Mega EW 50, Faster 10 CE, Kaiso Sorbie, Mavrik 2 F, Pyrinex Quick.

 

 

Celery fly (Philophylla heraclei)

Has 2 generation a year and winters as a pupa in the soil. The adults appear in may and lay eggs on the lower side of the leaves. After hatching the larvae penetrates the leaves where it digs galleries. On the wounds produced by it can develop phytopathogens.

celery apium graveolens celery fly

Control measures:

  • Collecting and destroying the plant residues after harvesting;
  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Periodical control of the crop;
  • Treatments with Nuprid AL 200 SC, Vertimec 1.8 EC, Laser 240 SC, Actara 25 WG, Decis Mega 50 EW.

 

Leaf miner (Liriomyza spp.)

It is a polyphagous species and can attack almost all vegetables. The larvae eats the leaves leaving them in the form of mining galleries. The adults eat the limb on the flower. On the wounds caused by this insect phytopathogenic agents may install.

celery apium graveolens leaf spot

Control measures:

  • Treatments with Confidor Energy, Mospilan, Actara,  Laser 240 SC, Decis Mega EW 50.

The nematodes are microscopic worms that can attack almost all vegetables. They have numerous generation a year and they are multiplying very quickly. The larvae perforates the radicular system of the plant and establish in the vessels elements. Through the feeding excretes a toxin that determine the hypertrophy of the tissue. The attacked plants stagnates from growing, and after a while dies.

celery apium graveolens nematodes

Control measures:

  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Cultivation of resistant varieties;
  • Treatments to soil with Basamid Granular or Force 1.5 G.

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