Beet treatments, most common diseases and pests of this technical plant

beet beta vulgaris

beet beta vulgaris
The beet (Beta vulgaris) is a plant species belonging to the Chenopodiaceae family which is grown thanks to its nutritional qualities. It is a biennial plant, very similar to the Sugar Beet. This is a valuable crop because all its parts (roots, leaves, etc.) can be used as animal food. The beet forage is highly assimilated by all animal species, especially by cattle. This plant is beneficial as it increases the milk production and helps the calves grow. Because it is similar to the sugar beet, it is attacked by the same species of pests and the same diseases.

Main diseases

Virosis:

Beet Mosaic Virus

The first symptoms can be seen a few days from the infection as bleached veins on leaves and light green, irregularly shaped spots. The affected tissues will no longer grow as they should and combined with the healthy leaves, the leaf gets a mosaic aspect. In case of a severe attack, the leaves curl and have a short petiole. This virosis is transmitted through aphids.
beet beta vulgaris Beet mosaic virus
Prevention and control measures:

  • Balanced fertilization;
  • Sowing when the time is right;
  • Destroying the weeds;
  • Taking out the injured plants from the crop;
  • Applying pesticides in order to fight insects;

Beet necrotic yellow vein virus:

This disease is present during all the vegetation stages. If the disease affects the crop when the plants have just started growing, then it will damage the entire crop. Attacked when the plants are a bit bigger, they will survive, but will no longer grow. In some cases, the veins turn yellow and start the necrosis process. The leaves are small, erect and if the weather is hot, the leaves become dry. The plants look damaged, overall, the root looks like a stake and grows multiple little side roots. The tip of roots are destroyed and the conducting veins being the necrosis process.
beet beta vulgaris Beet necrotic yellow vein virus
Prevention and control measures:

  • Avoiding tamped and wet lands;
  • Early sowing;
  • Preventing weeds;
  • Balanced fertilization;
  • Plating resilient hybrids;

Bacteriosis:

Sugar Beet Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas syringae pv aptata):

This disease only affects plants which haven’t grown 4-6 real leaves. The symptoms are brown to black spots, surrounded by a dark halo. In some of the cases, the affected tissues wilt and fall off, leading to the leaf looking pierced. The bacteria is transmitted through infested seeds and it spends the winter on the vegetal residues from the ground.
beet beta vulgaris Pseudomonas syringae pv aptata
Prevention and control measures:

  • Planting healthy seeds;
  • Plating resilient hybrids;
  • Crop hygiene;
  • Respecting the crop rotation;

Mycosis:

Phytium Root Rot:

The disease appears in the plants’ growing area from the soil and it is very dangerous until the plant its first 2 sets of real leaves. The sprouts have small, watery spots in the area where the root meets the stem. The affected area becomes thinner and wrinkled, and then it turns black and starts to rot. The plants are green, but fallen on the ground. Shortly after, the plants are destroyed, therefore certain dead spots will be seen in the crop.
beet beta vulgaris Phytium
Prevention and control measures:

  • Taking agrotechnical measures in order to boost the plant’s growth start;
  • Balanced fertilization;
  • Avoiding nematode infected soils and with an acid pH;
  • Avoiding wet grounds;
  • Treating the seeds before sowing;

Downy Mildew of Sugar Beet (Peronospora schachtii):

This disease appears during rainy years and it caused damage to about 15% of the crop. This disease attacks the plants since the sprout phase. The affected leaves remain small, deformed, become thicker and brittle and eventually wilt. During autumn time, the attack is visible on the middle leaves. On the superior side of the leaves, bleached spots appear, spots which are accompanied by a violet fluff on the inferior side. The bacteria is transmitted by the infected seed plants.
beet beta vulgaris Peronospora schachtii
Prevention and control measures:

  • Plating resilient species and hybrids;
  • Treating the seeds with Apron XL;
  • Destroying the remaining residues after separating the beet roots from the leaves;
  • Chemical treatment, using Funguran, Impact, Curzate Manox;

Powdery Mildew (Eryshipe betae):

This disease attacks all the organs from the plant’s shoot system, the characteristic symptoms can be seen on the leaves. The fungus brings with it white, felt looking like spots which grow rapidly and cover both sides of the leaves. As autumn approaches, the spots become dusty and small, black dots appear on its surface, which represents the fungus’ fruition. The severely attacked leaves turn yellow and wilt. The attack happens in the growing spots from the soil.
beet beta vulgaris Eryshipe betae
Prevention and control measures:

  • Gathering and destroying the vegetal residues resulted after separating the beet roots from the leaves;
  • Planting resilient hybrids;
  • Chemical treatments, using Sfera, Impact, Score;

Black Leg of Beet (Pleospora betae):

This is a very dangerous disease. It rarely attacks, but when it does the damages are massive. After the attack, the leaves located in the middle wilt and become invaded by brown, circular spots. When attacking the roots, the disease makes them rot. The fungus will grow even inside the warehouses. It spends the winter on the vegetal residues located on the ground and on the infected seeds.
beet beta vulgaris Pleospora betae
Prevention and control measures:

  • Balanced fertilization;
  • The most important method of maintaining the crop’s health is to treat the seeds before sowing;

Sugar Beet Rust Infection (Uromyces betae):

This is a very frequent disease and it normally appears at the end of the vegetation period. On both sides of the leaves dot looking like spots of a yellow color grow. Later on, on the inferior side of the leaves, orange colored cups arise. Starting with August, the disease goes through a new stage where the formations change color and become black. The affected leaves turn brown and become dry.
beet beta vulgaris Uromyces betae
Prevention and control measures:

  • Plating resilient species and hybrids;
  • Destroying the vegetal residues resulted from harvesting;
  • Deep ploughing;
  • Respecting the crop rotation;

Sugar Leaf Spot Disease (Cercospora beticola):

This is the most common disease which affects the sugar beet. The fungus starts to appear during the last days of June. Round, yellow colored spots appear on the leaves. As the disease evolves, the spots turn gray and have brown-reddish edges. During the first days of the disease, the spots are scarce, but then they multiply and start covering large surfaces of the leaves. The affected tissues become dry and fall off, leaving the leaves looking pierced.
beet beta vulgaris Cercospora beticola
Prevention and control measures:

  • Plating resilient hybrids;
  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Using healthy seeds;
  • Chemical treatments during the vegetation, using: Score, Topsin, Impact, Bravo;

Main pests 

Beet Cyst Nematode (Heterodere schachtii):

It grows 2 generations per year and it spends the winter as cyst. This pest attacks plants from the Chenopodiaceae family as these plants provide optimum conditions for its growth. The attack of this pest starts at the end of June and it attack either plants growing single or plants which grow in large crops. During hot days, the plants turn yellow, become dry and wilt and the main roots are short and form numerous secondary roots.
beet beta vulgaris Heterodere schachtii
Prevention:

  • Planting seeds which have not been infected;
  • Early sowing;
  • Correct crop rotation;

Sugar Beet Plant Bug (Poecyloscytus cognatus):

It grows one generation per year and it spends the winter as an egg in different sheltered areas (tree barks, stems). This pest is a polyphagous species, which prefers the sugar beet as it is considered the sugar beet’s main pest. Because of the attack, the affected tissues bend down and become dry. The wounds caused by this pest represent gate entrances for other phytopathogenic organisms.
beet beta vulgaris Poecyloscytus cognatus
Prevention:

  • Balanced fertilization;
  • Destroying the weeds from the crop;
  • Chemical treatments, using: Proteus, Pyrinex 25 CS, Biscaya, Fury, Mavrik;

Beet Bug (Piesma quadrata):

This is a very common species. It grows 2 generations per year and it spends the winter under the vegetal residues from the surface of the soil or inside the foliage from the edges of the forests. The plants have bleaches spots on the attacked areas, the leaves stop growing normally. Also, the leaves have curls on their surface. This bug can cause indirect damage as it can transmit a large series of dangerous virosis.
beet beta vulgaris Piesma quadrata
Prevention:

  • Balanced fertilization;
  • Destroying the weeds from the crop;

Black Bean Aphid (Aphis fabae):

This is a migratory species which grows more than one species and which spends the winter as an egg. The insect attacks over 200 plant species, the sugar beet being only an intermediate host. This pest colonizes the plant’s shoot system and feeds on its cellular juice. As a result of the attack the plant’s growth and development is slowed down. Also, aphids can carry a species of virosis.
beet beta vulgaris Aphis fabae
Prevention:

  • Destroying the weeds from the crop;
  • Chemical treatments, using Confidor Energy, Mavrik, Nurelle D, Actara, Biscaya;

 Beet Rot Aphid (Pemphigus fuscicornis):

It grows 8 generation per year and it spends the winter as a female or an as egg inside the soil, at about 20-100 cm deep. It prefers dry and warm areas and it attacks several plants belonging to the Chenopodiaceae family. Both the adults and the larvae feed on the root’s cellular juice. As a result of the attack, the plants wilt and the roots get a wrinkled aspect. The plants are weakened and ca easily be attacked by other phytopathogens.
beet beta vulgaris Pemphigus fuscicornis
Prevention:

  • Destroying the weeds from the crop;
  • Treating the seeds before sowing;
  • Chemically treating the vegetation areas at the first signs of aphid colonies, using Confidor Energy, Mavrik, Nurelle D, Actara, Biscaya;

Sugarbeet Weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris):

It grows one generation per year and it spends the winter inside the soil, at 20-25 cm deep. This is one of the most dangerous pests attacking the sugar beet. Both the larvae and the adults attack the sugar beet sprouts by chopping off the base of the plant or by chewing the cotyledons. One sugarbeet weevil and destroy up to 10-12 plants per day. After the plant grows it first pairs of real leaves, the adult sugarbeet weevils cannot compromise the crop, but they can chew cavities inside the roots, leaving the affected plants to wilt and the root to grow many secondary small roots. The injured plants are under-developed and the production is lower.
beet beta vulgaris Bothynoderes punctiventris
Prevention:

  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Preventing weed growth;
  • Treating the seeds before sowing;
  • Chemically treating the vegetation areas using Calypso, Actara, Mospilan, Decis;

Flea Beetles (Chaetocnema spp):

If the weather is moderate, this species grows 2-3 generations per year and it spends the winter as an adult, inside the soil’s superficial layer or underneath the vegetal residues. This pest causes enormous damages in the beet and sugar beet crops. The adults chew on the seeds, cotyledons or on the first real leaves. The affected tissues become dry, leaving the plants looking pierced. The plants’ growth is slowed down, and photosynthesis capacity is also reduced. The severe attacks occur during arid years.
beet beta vulgaris Chaetocnema spp
Prevention:

  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Preventing weed growth;
  • Treating the seeds before sowing;
  • Applying Kaiso Sorbie, Karate Zeon, Decis, Nurelle;

Beet Moth (Scrobipalpa ocellatella):

This pest grows 3-4 generations per year and it spends the winter as a larva on the beet residues resulted after harvesting or on the stored roots. The larvae feed on young leaves or create galleries inside the petiole, cotyledon or root. The affected organs are covered by silk threads or feces. The attacked plants lose the leaves, the roots are under-developed leading to a decrease in production.
beet beta vulgaris Scrobipalpa ocellatella
Prevention:

  • Correct crop rotation;
  • Disinfecting the storage areas;
  • Chemical treatments, using Decis Mega, Fury, Mavrik, Affirm, Fastac Active;

Spinach Leafminer (Pegomyia hyoscyami):

It grows 2 generations per year and it spends the winter as a pupa inside the soil’s superficial layer. The adults are not dangerous, but the larvae get into the leaves, towards the superior and inferior epidermis, where they consume the parenchyma. This is a very dangerous pest only when the plants have less than 8 leaves. The attacked leaves are filled with feces, their photosynthesis capacity is low.
beet beta vulgaris Pegomyia hyoscyami
Prevention:

  • Preventing weed growth;
  • Correct agrotechnical procedures usage;
  • Balanced fertilization;
  • Chemical treatments, using Confidor Energy, Pyrinex Quick, Actara, Nurelle D, Actellic;

 

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